Regular scientific and reasonable physical exercise can make human organs adapt to the exercise load from the aspects of morphology, structure, function and biological metabolism, so as to transform people's physique. But this kind of transformation can not be achieved by simply relying on the intake of nutrients. We should establish the concept of "lifelong sports", establish a good lifestyle, and promote health through exercise.
1、 Sports can affect human physiological functions in many ways. Scientific sports can effectively promote human physiological health. Physical exercise can promote the blood circulation of the whole body, make the muscles and bones get sufficient nutrition, improve the metabolic capacity of muscle cells and bone cells, increase and thicken the muscle fibers, and make the muscles strong, developed, strong, symmetrical and powerful. It can thicken the bones, thicken the bone trunks, and arrange the bone trabeculae densely and neatly. At the same time, the signs of bone and bone nodules are more obvious, which is more conducive to the firm attachment of muscles and ligaments, and strengthens the firmness of bone. Scientific exercise can also thicken the articular cartilage, increase the compressibility and contact area. At the same time, the nutritional hypertrophy of connective tissue and intercellular matrix increases the volume of muscle ligaments. These changes can improve the stability and flexibility of joints, better meet the sports needs, and reduce the occurrence of sports injuries.
Regular physical exercise can improve the nutritional status of myocardium and the elasticity of blood vessels. Improve the heart's output per minute, increase the heart's ability to transport oxygen, improve the excitability of the vagus nerve, expand the peripheral arterioles, slow down the heart rate, reduce blood pressure, improve the cardiovascular regulation function, and prevent the occurrence of coronary heart disease. Some experts believe that persistent exercise can at least delay the aging of the heart for 10-15 years.
Sports can develop respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, improve human immune function, prevent respiratory diseases, improve brain function and respond flexibly. People who often take part in sports can not be replaced by drug therapy for the recovery of mild neurological dysfunction.
Physical exercise improves digestion and absorption. It should be noted that there should be an appropriate interval between eating and exercise. Intense exercise or eating immediately after eating is likely to have adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended to rest for more than 30 minutes after starting light exercise and strenuous exercise 1 hour after meal before eating. Besides strengthening the system, sports can also improve mood, regulate mental state and eliminate psychological barriers. It is an effective measure to promote the health of freshmen. Therefore, sports play an extremely important role in preventing and improving sub-health.
2、 Lack of exercise will make human muscles flabby and prone to sports injury. Those who often sit still and often sit at their desks will cause the strain of neck, shoulder, back and waist due to lack of exercise, and then cause bone and joint diseases such as cervical spondylosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis and lumbar disc herniation. Lack of exercise also reduces the metabolic function of the human body. The probability of suffering from obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and heart disease is 5-8 times higher than those who adhere to reasonable exercise. The incidence rate of kidney disease, cholelithiasis, osteoporosis, cancer and mental depression is also significantly higher.
In addition, lack of exercise will also lead to the reduction of human immune function. With the high-speed and efficient work style, modern people have produced a series of new diseases with anxiety, depression and other emotional changes, which are also closely related to lack of exercise. As an American exercise physiologist said, lack of exercise is the real chronic suicide. It causes no less harm to people than alcohol and nicotine.
3、 Heart rate is the most simple and easy index to evaluate exercise intensity. In general, the heart rate is consistent with the pulse. The heart rate can be measured by touching the flex artery and the common carotid artery. The heart rate immediately after exercise can be measured to understand the exercise intensity and the body. The body's response to exercise load. By monitoring the recovery speed of heart rate after exercise, we can understand the body's adaptability to exercise load. The heart rate recovered to the level of quiet 10 minutes after exercise, indicating that the amount of exercise is appropriate.
The target heart rate refers to the target heart rate that should be reached and maintained during exercise. It is an important indicator of exercise intensity. If possible, the bull's-eye rate can be estimated according to the exercise load test, and the bull's-eye rate can also be calculated with a simple formula. First, calculate the maximum heart rate,
Maximum heart rate =220- age. Then take the corresponding percentage as the bull's-eye ratio. The average target heart rate can be 70%-85% of the maximum heart rate. People who do not exercise often with a relatively low level of health can take 55%-65% of the maximum heart rate to exercise regularly. For those with better health, the target heart rate can reach 90% of the maximum heart rate.
The disadvantage of using the simple calculation formula of bull's-eye rate is that people of the same age get the same bull's-eye rate, which can not well reflect the individual differences of exercisers. If possible, it is better to measure the maximum exercise ability and maximum heart rate of the subjects through the exercise load test, and then further determine the target heart rate according to the exercise objectives and specific conditions of the subjects.
Walking, cycling, jogging, swimming and other aerobic exercises can improve cardiopulmonary function, regulate blood pressure, improve glucose and lipid metabolism and endocrine function, improve bone mineral density, and persist in running, which can significantly enhance heart function. It is called the best anti-aging exercise.
Recommended scheme. Moderate intensity aerobic exercise 3-5 times a week, at least 30 minutes each time, moderate intensity, only maintaining a certain rhythm of exercise, feeling a little wheezing during exercise, and having no extra strength to talk or sing.
Strength training makes bones, joints and muscles stronger and helps to delay the decline of the body's exercise ability. Weightlifting is one of the best exercises in strength training. The recommended scheme is to exercise the large muscle groups of the whole body 2-3 times a week, 3 groups each time, and each muscle completes 12-20 movements as a group.
Flexibility training can enlarge the range of motion of joints and prevent sports injuries. Exercise flexibility through gymnastics, dance, martial arts, yoga, etc. Stretching exercises before each exercise and during the relaxation process after exercise can effectively exercise flexibility.
Balance exercise can reduce the risk of falling. Balance can be exercised through balance pad, balance ball, Taijiquan, etc. A few balance exercises can be inserted in the activities.
The research shows that when exercising more than 3 times a week, the increase of maximal oxygen uptake tends to be flat gradually. When the number of exercises increased to more than 5 times, the increase of maximal oxygen uptake did not increase significantly, while when the number of exercises per week was less than 2 times, it usually did not cause significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake. Therefore, it is best to exercise 3-4 times a week. Due to the fading effect of exercise, the interval between two exercises should not exceed 3 days. The body has a process of gradually adapting to all kinds of sports. The endurance of sports load gradually increases with the improvement of exercise level, but this is a slow process.
Athletes should be reasonable in the arrangement of exercise content, method and exercise load, pay attention to coherence, from simple to complex, from easy to difficult, from slow to fast, from small to large strength training, from light to heavy flexibility training, so as to gradually improve the intensity of exercise load, and to achieve the exercise effect, they should not exceed the physical burden, so as to avoid sports injury.